Ferenc Pataki (1928–2015) was a Hungarian social psychologist and professor. In 1946, he began studying history, philosophy, and sociology at the university of science in Budapest. He took part in the so-called people’s college movement, and in 1948, he became the director of the Petőfi Sándor College for Historians. In 1949, he was made main secretary of the National Fellowship of People’s Colleges (NÉKOSZ). Between 1949 and 1953, he studied at the Lenin Pedagogical Academy in Moscow. After his return to Hungary, Pataki became the leader of the Agitation and Propaganda Class of the Fellowship of Working Youth (DISZ). In 1955, he became a stipend-holder at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA). He was one of the leaders of Petőfi Circle, so after the Revolution of 1956, he could only work as a primary school teacher. In 1961–1965, he served as a member of the staff at the National Institute of Pedagogy. In 1965, he moved to the Psychological Research Institute of the Academy. In 1967, he began teaching social psychology and pedagogy at Eötvös Loránd University, and in 1984, he became a professor in the Sociology Department of the university. In 1972, he was made vice-director, and between 1975 and 1993 he served as director of the Psychological Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He was one of the founders of the New March Front in 1988, and he was a member of the Consultant Body of the Németh Government until 1990. Between 1990 and 1993, Ferenc Pataki was president of the Philosophical and Historical Class of the Academy. In 1993–1996, he served as one of the vice-presidents of the Academy. From 1996 until 2002, he was director of class again. His research focused on psychological theories of social effects, but he also dealt with theories and the history of education.
- Budapest, Hungary
The Czech philosopher Jan Patočka (1907-1977) is considered one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century. Patočka studied philosophy in Prague, Paris, Berlin and Freiburg by Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger. He dealt with the history of philosophy, philosophy of history, and phenomenological ideas which he applied to politics, culture, and history. He also studied philosophical works by J. A. Komenský, T. Masaryk and E. Husserl.
After the communist coup in Czechoslovakia in February 1948, Patočka was labelled a “reactionary philosopher” and was not allowed to teach at the university anymore. So he instead worked in several Czechoslovak institutes, including the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, mainly dealing with Comenius studies. Patočka was appointed professor at Charles University in Prague in 1968 and began to teach again. However, four years later Patočka was dismissed from the university, officially because of his old age.
Despite his dismissal from the university, Patočka continued to hold regular consultations for his doctoral student Ivan Chvatík. Chvatík invited also other friends and classmates to these lectures and thus regular philosophical underground seminars, called later “Patočka University,” came into existence. Seminars, usually lasting until late at night, took place every week until 1977. Participants were mainly Patočkaʼs students (e.g. Ivan Chvatík, Pavel Kouba, Miroslav Petříček, Jiří Michálek, Josef Vinař, Marika Krištofová, Jaromír Kučera, Milan Sobotka, and Jiří and Jaroslava Pešeks). Lectures were organised secretly and each meeting was held in a different place. The participants were notified strictly by word of mouth, as there were suspicions that some of the members were being observed by the police. Ivan Chvatík recorded all eleven lectures that were later issued as the cycle, “Caring for the Soul” (now published under the title “Plato and Europe”). The following cycle of seminars was published under the title “Heretical Essays” in the Petlice samizdat edition by Ludvík Vaculík. These lectures and essays impressed the intellectual audience and Patočka was seen by the Police as an important dissident.
In 1976, Patočka supported the protest against the imprisonment of the members of the music band The Plastic People of the Universe. Then, he joined the famous protest petition Charter 77 and later became, together with Jiří Hájek and Václav Havel, its first spokesman. After the Charter was published, it was no longer possible to continue with the seminars. At the end of February 1977, the Dutch Minister of Foreign Affairs, Max van der Stoel, accompanied by journalist Dick Verkijk, arrived in Prague for an official visit. Dick Verkijk persuaded Patočka to meet the minister and organise a joint press conference. It was the first time that a political representative of a foreign nation took official notice of the local dissident movement. Although Patočka was ill, he arrived at the InterContinental Hotel in Prague, explaining the aims of the dissidents and Charter 77. Patočka was thensubjected to a lenthy interrogation by the police. Due to the interrogation and his poor health, he had to be hospitalized.
Jan Patočka died on March 13, 1977. His funeral became a symbolic manifestation against the communist regime.
- Praha, Prague, Czech Republic
- 04277 Leipzig Bernhard-Göring-Straße 152 , Germany
Louis Pavel was an Estonian painter. From 1935 he studied at the Pallas Higher Art School, but his studies remained uncompleted due to the war. Before the end of the Second World War, he joined German armed units, and was later sent to a Soviet prison camp. He came back to Estonia in 1946. Starting anew as an artist was difficult, he could not get his work into exhibitions. Therefore, he also worked as a forester and a sailor.
He was the father of the poet Indrek Hirv, and the partner of the artist Helgi Hirv.
Goran Pavelić Pipo was born in Zagreb in 1954. He graduated with a degree in English and phonetics at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Science in Zagreb, where he also earned a master’s degree in general linguistics. As of 1991, he was a member of the Croatian Army, and in 2012 he retired with the rank of colonel. Although retired, he continued to engage in photography. He received his first lesson in photography from his parents, who worked as professional photographers. He became more seriously involved in photography in 1974. He soon became a member of the editorial board of the youth magazine Polet, and as a photojournalist he began to keep track of events on the Yugoslav new wave scene.
The quality of his photos was recognized by other Yugoslav newspapers, which began to publish his photographs. For the younger generation, the first encounter with the new wave, besides music, was through the photography of Goran Pavelic Pipo. Photos like Azra's performance at Kulušić or Jura Stublić in front of the Zvečka café have become iconic because they best capture the spirit of the time. An essential determinant of the spirit at that time was the physical appearance of the youth, who were radically opposed to appearances promoted by the Communist Party. The picture of neatly dressed and combed youth was replaced by the image of sloppy and provocatively dressed youth who expressed their disgust with the regime through fashion. Goran Pavelić Pipo did not have conflicts with the regime, but certainly was an important protagonist on the alternative urban scene in Zagreb in the early 1980s.
- Zagreb, Croatia