Petru Lucinschi (b. 27 January 1940, Rădulenii Vechi, Florești district) is a Moldovan politician who served as a Soviet party dignitary (including First Secretary of the Communist Party of Moldavia) and later as President of the Republic of Moldova (1997–2001). He graduated from the State University of Moldova in 1962. He is a member of the Academy of Social Sciences of the Russian Federation (Moscow). He holds a PhD in Philosophy (1977). During 1960–1971, Petru Lucinschi held the positions of: instructor, chief of department, secretary, First Secretary of the CC of the Moldavian Leninist Communist Youth Union. Later (1971–1976) he was a Secretary of the CC of the CPM. During 1976–1978 Lucinschi held the position of First Secretary of the Chisinau City Committee of the CPM. He worked as deputy chief of department at the CC of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) during 1978–1986. He then was appointed Second Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Tajikistan during 1986–1989. In 1989 Lucinschi was elected as First Secretary of the CC of the CPM, a position he held until 1990. In 1990–1991 he was a secretary of the Central Committee and a member of the Political Bureau of the CC of the CPSU. During 1991–1992 he held the position of senior researcher at the Institute for Social-Political Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow). He was also executive director of the Social Sciences Development Fund of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow). During 1992–1993 Lucinchi was the Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador of the Republic of Moldova to the Russian Federation. He was elected Chairman of the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova on February 4, 1993 and then reelected as Chairman of the Parliament on March 29, 1994. Petru Lucinschi held the position of President of the Republic of Moldova from 15 January 1997 to 4 April 2001. He was a member of the Supreme Soviet of the MSSR (1967–1980), member of the Supreme Soviet of the Tajik SSR (1986–1990), and member of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (1986–1991). From 1990 until 1996 he was a Member of Parliament of the Republic of Moldova. Currently he is chairman of the Lucinschi Foundation for Strategic Studies and Development of International Relations. Petru Lucinschi holds several distinctions and awards: The Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour (France, 1998), Order of the Redeemer (Greece, 1999), Grand Order of the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre (Greek Orthodox Church, Jerusalem, 2000), and the Collar grade of the Star of Romania Order (Romania, 2000). In the context of the present collection, Lucinschi’s position and role were somewhat ambiguous: while he played the role of an ideological vigilante in December 1970, he was also instrumental in assisting Noroc’s leader, Mihai Dolgan, to re-create the group under a new guise and name, Contemporanul (The Contemporary), in 1974. Lucinschi also reflected on the Noroc phenomenon in a later interview.
- Chișinău, Moldova
Jerzy Ludwiński (1930) was born in Zakrzówka in the Lubelszczyzna region. He was a critic and an art theoretician, a curator of numerous exhibitions, an academic teacher, and a visionary whose concept still inspires artists and researchers. His intellectual and organisational activity, especially during the time he spent in Wroclaw in 1966-1975, greatly influenced the development of the Polish conceptualism and neo-avant-garde. Ludwiński died in Toruń in 2000, where he had lived since 1975.
In 1955 Ludwiński graduated from art history at the Catholic University of Lublin. Two years later he was one of the founders of the Lublin’s group Zamek; he also became an editor of the “Structures” (an addition to the “Kamena” magazine), at the same time cooperating with other press issues and actively participating in various artistic events. In 1966 he co-organised the Artists’ and Scientists’ Symposium “Art in the changing world” in the Nitrogen Plants in Puławy – with the participation of local engineers. It proved to be a breakthrough event, both for Ludwiński, who started to sketch his main ideas, and for the whole conceptualism in Poland.
The same year Ludwiński moved to Wroclaw where he presented the idea of the Current Art Museum – an institution which would analyse and document currents artistic facts; being art’s “sensitive seismograph” and its catalyser. The extension of this concept was the idea of a “game’s museum”, which was led by an artist, critic (and curator), and the audience, enabling all parties to negotiate the meanings of created works. Under Mona Lisa Gallery – as the modest gallery in the International Press and Books’ Club’s (IPBC) hall was informally named – was an attempt to materialise those ideas with the limited funding and exposition possibilities. Gallery was ran by Maria Bierny, a head of whole IPBC, but Ludwiński was its curator between 1967-1971, and thanks to his activity the institution was of an extremely authorial character. It provoked authentic, not routinized, discussion about contemporary art. Every exhibition was preceded by the dialogue of an artist and a curator, published in the “Odra” magazine, and finished with a public debate. One of the most important exhibitions in the Under Mona Lisa Gallery was the Terminology art in 1970 – an exposition in a form of text and documentation from the outdoor workshop in Osieki from the same year. It was in Osieki where Ludwiński presented his famous paper Post-artistic art (published later under a slightly changed name Art in a post-artistic epoch), which described the following phases of art evolution; both those form the past (from an object to space) and those that were yet to come. The ending point was specified as dispersion, and merging of the art and reality. Ludwiński predicted that the eagerness to dematerialise art, to exchange a work of art with the “creative process” and action, will lead to a gradual penetration of art in into the spheres of everyday life, science, and technology.
Also in 1970, in Wroclaw, one of the most important events of the Polish conceptualism took place: the Wroclaw ’70 Fine Arts Symposium, organised to commemorate the 25th anniversary of joining the Recovered and Northern Territories to Poland – but in fact it was an excuse to gather tens of the Polish conceptual and neo-avant-garde artists. Ludwiński was an important member of the Symposium Organising Committee. During the event he presented his vision of the Artistic Research Centre (ARC), describing it as an institution both of research nature, and at the same time stimulating art development (as a substitute for ARC may be seen the Art Documentation Centre, founded in 1972 and closed just a year later). In 1971 Ludwiński also managed to organise (together with Antoni Dzieduszycki and Jan Chwałczyk) an outdoor workshop Ziemia Zgorzelecka “Art and science in the process of protecting human natural environment”. It was an expression of ecological consciousness of the conceptual artists and theoreticians. However, the same year Ludwińki resigned from running the Under Mona Lisa Gallery, which was an effect of a conflict with the IPBC’s authorities.
After moving to Torun in 1975 Ludwiński started to run a gallery Punkt (in 1976-1978). He still took part in the artistic life, visiting various exhibitions, symposiums, and outdoor workshops. It is worth mentioning i.e. the International Meetings of Artists, Scientists, and Art Theoreticians in Osieki or the biennale Golden Bunch in Zielona Gora. Since 1982 he tought in the State Higher School for Fine Arts in Poznan, and for the rest of his life he concentrated on the didactics. He was a member of the Polish section of the International Association of Art Critics AICA and a persistent promoter of art in the press, radio, and television.
Ludwiński strongly contributed to shifting the attention from an artistic object to the „artistic process”; he sought a dialogue of the artists, critics, curators, and audience, aiming to democratise and decentralise the art world. He opposed the exclusiveness of art and the pomp that accompanies it; he provoked confrontations and polemic. Ludwiński has never written a whole book (there are only articles, notes, diagrams, and papers), as he was rather a man of a spoken word, of discussion and dialogue. However, his influence on the changes in art of the 1960s and the 1970s is invaluable. His somewhat hippie lifestyle and staying in the peripheries of the art field (little, independent galleries, reviving the creative circles in Lublin, Wroclaw, Torun), definitely made him a person standing out from mainstream. His importance is not even diminished by the fact that he cooperated with the security services, what he explained with the desire to explain them the complex processes within art evolution. In the article Performative mythology. About Jerzy Ludwiński’s curatorial strategies Piotr Lisowski underlined Ludwiński’s thought radicalism and his prophetic attitude: “His work practice has always been characterised by ephemerality and a specific kind of nomadism. It was largely determined by the critic’s biography and myth: a vagabond in jeans, hitchhiking from a symposium to symposium, from a reading to a reading, who found important talking about art”. Play, processual thinking, dialoguing, blurring borders, nomadism, and a visionary attitude made Ludwiński an unusual figure, standing out from easy labelling and interpretation schemes.
Dzikie pola. Historia awangardowego Wrocławia, Dorota Monkiewcz (ed.), Zachęta – Narodowa Galeria Sztuki, Muzeum Współczesne Wrocław, Warsaw 2015.
Jerzy Ludwiński. Wypełniając puste pola, Piotr Lisowski, Katarzyna Radomska (ed.), Centrum Sztuki Współczesnej Znaki Czasu, Toruń 2011.
Filip Lukas was born in Kaštel Stari (near Split) in 1871. He was a Croatian theologian, geographer and historian. He studied at the universities in Zadar and Vienna at the beginning of the 20th century. Lukas taught at the Economics and Commerce School in Zagreb as a professor of economic geography. Before 1945, he was considered one of the leading Croatian intellectuals. He was president of the cultural institution Matica hrvatska from 1928 to 1945. In 1945 Lukas had to emigrate. As the former president of Matica Hrvatska and the former editor of Croatian Review, he permitted Nikolić to continue publishing Croatian Review abroad. He died in Rome in 1958.
- Zagreb, Croatia
Tõnis Lukas (b. 1962) is an Estonian historian and politician. He was director of the Estonian National Museum in 1992–1995, and again in 2013–2017. In 1999–2002, he was minister of education, and in 2007-2011 minister for education and research.
When studying history at the Tartu State University in the early 1980s, he was an active member of the student movement Noor-Tartu (Young-Tartu). Today he also belongs to the circle of owners of the movement’s collection.
- Tartu , Estonia undefined
Gábor Lukin is a Hungarian composer who has been living in Los Angeles since the mid-1980s. He was a founding member of the underground music band Trabant, together with Marietta Méhes and János Vető, in 1980. Trabant became the first underground rock band that was allowed to release a single officially. This was due to their increasing popularity after their involvement in János Xantus' 1984 film, Eszkimo asszony fázik, in which not only their music was used, but the lead singer, Méhes, played the leading female role.
- California, Los Angeles County, Los Angeles, United States